Fingerprint Recognition Algorithm Python

An automated technique used for identifying and authenticating person’s individuality by performing a comparative study over two fingerprint images is known as fingerprint recognition. By the by, it is the most popular biometric authentication system. Further, it can be found in several real-time applications/systems such as mobile security patterns, locker systems, employee attendance, etc. From this article, you can gain development details of fingerprint recognition algorithm python along with important techniques and libraries!!!

Moreover, it is simple to collect input fingerprint images, extract features/patterns, and match patterns with the stored template. This makes fingerprint recognition systems globally popular for security systems. As well, there are various biometric sources of fingerprint for every person. 

Some essential features of the fingerprint are delta, bifurcation, ridge ending, pore, island, crossover, and core. In addition, we have also given you the need for fingerprint recognition in the below points. To overcome those points, fingerprint recognition research is widely increasing. 

Famous Algorithm used in Fingerprint Recognition Python Projects

Purpose of Fingerprint Recognition 

  • Illegal Accessing Attempts
  • Compromise High Probability 
  • Inconsistent Fingerprint Scanning
  • Physical Misrepresentation
  • Continuous Changes in Identical Fingerprint

Fundamentals of Fingerprint Recognition 

In recent days, the growth of biometric technologies is tremendous in modern society. So, it gains the incredible attention of a large research community. Particularly, the fingerprint biometric feature has high recognition among others. 

Among other biometric features, the fingerprint is permanent and reliable which incorporates valleys and ridges elements. Here, the valleys are displayed as white areas among ridges, and ridges are displayed as dark areas of captured fingerprints. By the by, the unique quality of fingerprints is computed from features and correlations of local ridges. To the end, the fingerprint recognition system checks whether the output of two ridges sets to address the same person or not.

What are the 3 types of fingerprints?

Generally, there are three different types of fingerprint patterns as whorls, arches, and loops. Each one has a unique structure and characteristics in biometric authentication. Among these three classes, arches are recognized as the least type in fingerprint recognition applications/systems which is about only 5%. 

Particularly, this pattern lets ridges route from one side and come out the opposite side in the print by rising the central part. Once the essential patterns are collected from the fingerprint image, and then check the similarity for pattern matching. For your information, here we have given you general operations of the fingerprint recognition algorithm python system. 

Overall Process for Fingerprint Recognition

  • Capture fingerprint image from the sensor
  • Perform image enhancement for a better view of patterns
  • Implement binarization and thinning techniques
  • Extract the minutiae features
  • Match the extracted features with database features
  • Display the result of matching

Now, we can see the significant patterns that are mostly used for recognizing and verifying a person’s identity using fingerprint. This list of features comprises even tiny details of the fingerprint. Based on the project requirements, one can select the features for your fingerprint recognition and authentication systems. In truth, our developers have sufficient practice in handling all these features for reaching maximum accuracy in pattern detection and matching processes. So, we are already familiar with key techniques used for feature extraction of the fingerprint. Further, we also suggest suitable techniques for your project based on your goal. 

What are the important features of fingerprint recognition? 

Minutia Features

It is a primary feature in fingerprint recognition which compares two fingerprint images using the following patterns,

  • Ridge bifurcation
    • It is a point that one ridge split into two ridges
  • Island
    • It is a ridge ending / one small ridge in short ridge
  • Delta
    • It is a Y-shaped ridge junction
  • Spur
    • It is a part of long ridge which signifies bifurcation with short ridge
  • Core
    • It is a U-turn shaped ridge pattern
  • Cross-over
    • It is a short ridge that present between two parallel ridges
  • Ridge enclosure
    • It is a single ridge which split and reunites 
  • Short ridge
    • It is ridge with small distance
  • Ridge ending
    • It is an end-point of ridge with no further connection on other ridges

In addition, we have also given you some important types of features that are extensively recognized in the feature extraction process of fingerprint recognition. As well, level 1 is the global level and level 2 is the local level. Here, level 1 addresses the basic pattern that is commonly found in primary fingerprint recognition projects. Likewise, level 2 addresses the modern/advanced patterns that considering as current developments of fingerprint recognition algorithm python projects. Our developers have well-equipped knowledge in both basic and advanced fingerprint identification and authentication systems to support you at all levels. 

How Features are does extract for fingerprint recognition? 

  • Global Level (Primary) 
    • If the ridges of fingerprints are in a parallel state, then it categorized into three forms as whorl, loop, and delta
  • Local Level (Secondary)
    • If the ridges of fingerprints are in a discontinuity sate called minutiae, then it categorized into several forms as a lake, spur, ridge bifurcation, crossover, ridge ending, point, etc.

Now, we can see two primary techniques involved in the process of feature extraction for fingerprint recognition systems. We have sufficient training on handling fingerprint recognition techniques. So, we know the required python libraries and functions for implementing any sort of complex techniques. In the case of requirements, we also design our own algorithms or create hybrid techniques to tackle complexity in development. Also, we analyze the pros and cons of each technique before suggesting as best solutions for your handpicked research problems. 

Major Two Techniques for Fingerprint Recognition 

  • Fingerprint Continuous-Classification 
    • It will not segment the input image of fingerprints into different disjoint classes
    • It uses feature vectors for representation
    • It maps the related fingerprints with close-points in high-dimensional space
    • It performs a matching process overall images of the database on the basis of close feature vectors
  • Fingerprint Sub-Classification
    • It is a manual fingerprint matching process which initially used in forensic systems
    • It has difficult rules to implement fingerprint matching and classification processes
    • It is majorly dependent on the middle, thumb, index, and other fingers
    • It also tough identifies classes of fingerprint-like arch, whorl, tented arch, twin loop, right loop, and left loop
    • It is a complex method to execute on real-time fingerprint classification applications

Other Important Fingerprint Recognition Techniques 

  • FingerCode
    • Merits
      • While matching fingerprint, it minimizes template which results in effective comparison
    • Demerits
      • Need more time for template preparation
  • Ridge Line Following
    • Merits
      • While preprocessing, it minimizes resource cost
    • Demerits
      • Consider impact of image quality
  • Structural Classification
    • Merits
      • Effective by means of continuative categorization
    • Demerits
      • Lack of resistance over characters / lines
  • String-Alignment Matching
    • Merits
      • Non-linearity alteration over polar coordinated for effective error prediction
    • Demerits
      • Results in inaccurate arrangement and false minutiae
  • Dynamic Time Wrapping and Triangular Matching
    • Merits
      • Efficient over rotation and displacement image instead of matching technique
    • Demerits
      • Large searching areas which results in high computation
  • Image Enhancement
    • Merits
      • Eliminate false minutiae for improved image quality
    • Demerits
      • Gabor filter increase computation

Further, we have also given you the major classifications of fingerprint matching techniques. Since, there are greater numbers of matching techniques in fingerprint recognition systems.  Our developers are great in suggesting you best-fitting matching techniques that accurately match even very tiny patterns of fingerprint. Likewise, we guide you in each operation of fingerprint recognition system such as image collection, pre-processing, enhancement, denoising, feature detection, feature extraction, etc.

Techniques used in fingerprint recognition algorithm python matching concepts

  • Pattern-oriented Matching
    • At first, collect input images of fingerprint
    • Then, compare basic patterns of input image with a stored template which executes on same direction of alignment (i.e., central point)
    • Basic patterns – loop, arch, and whorl
    • Further, template vary with pattern orientation, type and size
  • Correlation-oriented Matching
    • At first, superimpose the two input images of fingerprint
    • Then, determine the correlated values among pixels in varied alignments
    • For instance: Rotation and different position
  • Minutiae-oriented Matching
    • At first, collect input images of fingerprint
    • Then, extract the minutiae patterns from two input images
    • Next, store the collected patterns as feature points in 2D plane
    • After that, identify matching alignment over template for achieving the highest number of minutiae pairing

Next, we can see the primary constraints to developing fingerprint recognition and verification systems. Currently, these security threats of fingerprint recognition systems make researchers largely move on to this field. Recent research of fingerprint recognition system intends to find research solutions that effectively solve these limitations. Our resource team has collected more suitable solutions for these problems of fingerprint recognition. Likewise, we also collected solutions to other important and growing research challenges of real-time fingerprint recognition systems. 

Limitations of Fingerprint Recognition 

  • Forged by finger mold by using gelatin
  • Need of huge-database
  • Inconvenience of employee over employer for storing fingerprint 
  • Steal the fingerprint using advanced techniques and give security threats
  • Need of highly efficient techniques for security area of different research fields

In a fingerprint recognition system, the quality of fingerprint image acts as a performance influential factor not only for minutiae extraction techniques but also for other fingerprint identification techniques. For a high-quality fingerprint image, valleys and ridges are needed to be in a local constant direction.  Although several advanced scanning technologies are available, input images are captured in low quality because of few quality destroying elements. Eventually, it degrades the accuracy of ridges and cause issues in minutiae extraction. 

To solve all those issues, our developers are passionate to design an improved fingerprint recognition algorithm python. This helps to effectively collect, filter, test, and enhance fingerprint images by using python code. Further, here have given you some latest research topics in fingerprint recognition systems. 

Latest Trends in Fingerprint Recognition

  • Fingerprint Lock in Smartphones
  • Biometric Authentication System for Enterprises
  • Vertical Specialized Identity Recognition 
  • Single Biometric Trait Verification 
  • Fingerprint Authentication using Multimodal Techniques
  • And much more

From the development aspect, now we can see the important python libraries used for developing different fingerprint recognition systems. Each library has unique functions to perform a particular set of tasks that are essential for fingerprint recognition. Our developers have comes crossed several fingerprint recognition projects using python in different research perceptions. 

So, we guarantee that provides you with accurate code development support for your project. As well, we are good to choose libraries that help minimize code work without disturbing high-quality results. let’s see the fundamental python libraries for fingerprint recognition.

Python Libraries for Fingerprint Recognition

  • SKimage
  • NumPy
  • Tensorflow
  • OpenCV

Are you interested to know the simplest way of testing fingerprint recognition applications or installing libraries? then follow then the below-specified commands. By the by, if the docker engine is not installed in the system then install docker. Also, you need to keep fingerprints in /database folder.

docker build -t <your_desired_name> .

docker run -it < your_desired_name> <first_fingerprint> <second_fingerprint>

           Now, we can see the basic procedure to develop a fingerprint recognition system in python code. Here, we have addressed the fundamental library called TensorFlow library with its key function called fingerprint(). Similarly, we also support you in your project development by suggesting appropriate python libraries and functions based on your project requirements. 

How to implement fingerprint recognition using Python? 


Basically, TensorFlow is a python-based open-source library that is a Google product. The main of this library is to support different deep neural networks and machine learning models. Further, it includes all sorts of functions to implement different fingerprint recognition algorithm python projects. For illustration purpose, here we have taken “fingerprint()” function in tensorflow library as an example. Let’s see the usage, syntax and parameters of fingerprint().

  • Python Function 
    • fingerprint() – Intended to produce value for fingerprint
  • Syntax
    • tensorflow.fingerprint(data, method, name)
  • Parameters
    • data – Signifies tensor that have rank 1 or above
    • method – Signifies proposed algorithm to produce fingerprint
    • name(optional) – Signifies operation that going to be executed

Majorly in fingerprint recognition algorithm python, minutiae feature points are extracted from a fingerprint by using Harris Corner Detection technique. Moreover, it utilizes SIFT (ORB) and brute-force hamming distance to acquire formal descriptors around key points. Then, analyze the features for finding matching patterns based on a threshold value. Further, we have given you steps to implement this system.  


  • At first, insert 2 fingerprint images in a database which you going to compare in future
  • Give two images names as arguments in the console

For your add-on benefits, we have also given you some current research demands of fingerprint recognition systems. All these topics are collected from advanced research areas of biometric authentication systems (i.e., fingerprint). 

We support you not only on these project topics but also in other emerging project ideas. To serve in all possible aspects of fingerprint recognition systems, we have an enormous amount of novel project ideas in our latest fingerprint recognition projects collection repository. Once you share the interesting area with us, we let you know the recent advancements of a particular area. 

Trending Top 6 Fingerprint Recognition Project Topics

Best Titles on Fingerprint Recognition using Python 

  • Fingerprint Image Processing in Smart Bank Locker System
  • New-born to Adult Fingerprint Collection for ID Database 
  • Fingerprint Detection System using Electromyogram (EMG) Technique
  • Mutual Capacitive Biometric TSP for Differential Coded Multi-Signal Technique
  • Efficient Loose Genetic Approach and Global Minutiae Structure for Contactless Fingerprint Identification 

Overall, we are here to serve in your required phase of fingerprint recognition systems which can be either research or development or both. Further, we also guide you in project manuscript writing if you required. 

To the end, we deliver the project on time with an implementation plan, system requirements, software installation guidelines, project execution video, and more. To the great extent, we also give you research guidance on other related biometric recognition systems as iris recognition, hand vein recognition, finger vein recognition, etc. To know more about our fingerprint recognition algorithm python projects, interact with our team.