Vertical Handover Simulation

In general, the techniques of vertical handover use a huge scale of network metrics. Therefore, the possibility of network overhead increases every time utilizing computing power, handover time, latency, and energy usage. Most importantly, there are two types of handovers as vertical and horizontal

On this page, we are going to fully see the fundamental and advance information of vertical handover simulation projects!!!

Before getting deep into the vertical handover section, one should know the differences between vertical and horizontal handovers. For this purpose, our research experts have given you the major classifications of handovers in two different aspects.

Horizontal vs. Vertical Handover

  • QoS Metrics
    • Vertical – Multiple
    • Horizontal – Single
  • Network Interface
    • Vertical – Multiple
    • Horizontal – Single
  • Access Technique
    • Vertical – Heterogeneous
    • Horizontal – Single
  • IP Address in Simulation
    • Vertical – change based on topology
    • Horizontal – Continue to unchanged

The variation of network topology through MS is known as vertical handover (VHO). For instance: network reconfiguration and NIC transformation. In simple terms, VHO is nothing but MS’s ability to move from one network to another (i.e., heterogeneous networks). The achievement of seamless handover without delay and other interruptions is the main challenge in wireless heterogeneous networks.

The ping-pong effect will create a major impact on the handover. The ping-pong effect is referred to as the connection of a mobile device with two APs. So, it degrades the performance of the handover. Consequently, now looking best handover solutions. Below, we have given you the 3 major phases of vertical handovers which depict the workflow of VHO. 

3 Phases for vertical handover

  • HO Initial Phase
    • Identify the systems and collect the required data
  • HO Decision Phase
    • Select the optimal system or network
  • HO Execution Phase
    • Finalize the HO decision and execute based on network

We hope that presently you are clear with the basics of vertical handover. Now let see the research perspective of vertical handover. Intending to deliver modern research services, our resource team usually collects the research challenges based on current events in VHO research. From our recent study, we found the following research issues are playing as major challenges in the vertical handover field.

Research Issues in Vertical handover

  • Mobility-based Issues
    • Mobility Standards
      • MIP, HMP, CMIP
      • SIP, HAWAII
    • Mobility State
      • Diagonal Handovers
      • Horizontal Handovers
      • Vertical Handovers
    • Handover Metrics
      • BER, PER, CIR
      • Bandwidth, SNR, RSS
      • Preferences
    • Performance Measures
      • Packet Loss
      • Signaling
      • Latency
      • Number of Handovers
      • Throughput
  • Handover-based Issues
    • Handover Management
      • Network / Mobile-controlled
      • Mobile / Network-based
    • Handover Approaches
      • Reactive / Proactive
      • Hard / Soft
      • Seamless
    • Mobility Techniques
      • Timer-oriented
      • Function-oriented
      • RSS-oriented
      • Context-oriented
    • Handover Process
      • Association
      • Dissociation
      • Execution

Our research team has found suitable handover techniques and algorithms to solve the above-specified problems. Once, you make a contact with us, we let you know our proposed solutions. Further, we have also given you the significant elements that influence the performance of the vertical handover techniques/algorithms. On considering the following metrics, we usually design the VHO solutions.

How to implement Vertical Handover Simulation

Performance Metrics in Vertical Handover

  • Transmit Power
  • Cost Factor
  • Stable Connections
  • Frame Error Rate (FER)
  • Collision Probability
  • Bit Error Rate (BER)
  • Speed and Distance
  • Channel Status
  • Quality of Service (QoS)
  • Number of SNR and PoAs
  • User Preference
  • Network Traffic Load
  • Accessible Resources (Device Energy)
  • Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI)
  • Bandwidth (Provided and Available)

For illustration purposes, our developers have given you a sample project of vertical handover simulation.

Best Simulation Projects in vertical handover

The main aim of this project is to find the solutions for the question “In what way does the adaptive technique achieve the seamless VHO at low cost in heterogeneous networks?” 

Specifically, this project is answered the above question by developing a new idea for a software-defined radio environment. Also, this network includes two main entities as context repositories and adaptability managers. Let’s have a look at the procedure of project execution.

  • Context Repositories
    • User-based
      • Input Metrics – service cot, Application type
    • Network-based
      • Input Metrics – Initial latency, Network load (traffic), RSS, offered bandwidth
    • Service-based
      • Input Metrics – service abilities and service cost
    • Terminal-based
      • Input Metrics – Battery power, Vehicle velocity, Location
  • Adaptability Manager
    • Get the input parameters of context repository
    • Initiate the handover by network availability and RSS
    • Decide on handover using Analytical hierarchy process
    • After decision finalization, execute the handover by hardware reconfigure command

Generally, the multi-interfaced node has various wireless network technologies. So, if there is a necessity due to the mobile nodes, the connection has to be changed depends on the network state. This network topology variation and network changeover are addressed as vertical handover. These VHO techniques are intended to gather and assess input parameters to take VHO decisions for VHO execution. These is the basic functionalities of VHO, but the way of approach differs for every technique

Simulation Results in Vertical handover

One of the finest ways to study and improve the VHO techniques performance in wireless networks is vertical handover simulation. In comparison with real heterogeneous networks, it is a beneficial method in multiple aspects such as time, cost, efforts, scalability, etc. Commonly, the vertical handover simulation project will be segmented into three different sections,

  • Configure the Simulation Environment
  • Comparative Study based on Performance Metrics
  • Simulation Analysis Discussion / Summary

Our developers are good at selecting appropriate simulation tools and designing efficient techniques for VHO related projects. Here, we have given you the list of simulators that are more apt for operating VHO processes.

Simulation Tools for Vertical Handover process
  • OMNeT++
  • NS3
  • NCTUns
  • NS2
  • Matlab

Although many simulation tools, we need to choose the best-fitting tool for your project. The tools are differentiated by their characteristics. Also, it has different environmental settings and configurationsFor example: here we have given the parameters of NS2 specifically the VHO process of wireless networks. These values are not fixed / static, for the reference only we provided the values for each simulation parameter. 

Simulation Environment Settings for Vertical Handover

  • Transmit Power
    • LTE – 46 dBm
    • Wi-Fi – 20 mw
    • UMTS – 30 mw
  • Coverage Area
    • Wi-Max – 150 m2, Ellipse
    • Wi-Fi – 100 m2, Ellipse
    • UMTS – 200 m2, Ellipse
    • LTE – 600 m2, Ellipse
  • Minimum Path Loss
    • Wi-Max, LTE, Wi-Fi – Default settings
    • Wi-Fi – 2
  • Mobile Users Count (Nodes) – 10
  • Route Trajectory – Linear
  • Playground – 1000 m
  • Number of Wi-Fi APs – 3
  • Beacon Interval – 3
  • Traffic Type – VoIP
  • Wireless Protocol – 802.11
  • Sensitivity – -94 dBm
  • MAC Type – MAC1069_4
  • Carrier Frequency – 5.890e9 Hz
  • Speed of Mobile Nodes – 2.8 m/s
  • NIC Type – NIC80211P
  • Maximum Simulation Duration – 200 s

In addition, we have given you the general procedure for vertical handover simulation using the NS2 simulator. In this, we have classified the simulation process into three phases as pre-simulation, in-simulation, and post-simulation as follows,

Simulation Steps for NS2 (Vertical handover)

  • Pre-Simulation
    • Construct the simulation environ by Tcl files along with the followings,
    • AWK statements (trace the datasets which relates the regular expression)
    • Simulation metrics are computed and stored
  • In-Simulation
    • Run the Tcl files and monitor the followings,
    • Make sure that handover happened and log the simulation results
    • Make sure that log files (simulation and trace files) are generated after simulation
  • Post-Simulation
    • Grab the required parameters from executed files as follows,
      • Plot Curves
      • Trace files – latency, packet loss and throughput
      • Log files – probability of LGD, handover delay

For your reference, here we have taken Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies as samples to demonstrate the vertical handover scenarios over them. As a common factor, we have identified both technologies use the same P2P communication (low/high power) and frequency. The VHO techniques used between these technologies will surely yield the best results on the following elements. These values are customized according to the simulation environment and settings.

  • GSM
    • Modulation – GMSK
    • Operation Range – in Km
    • Transmit Power – 8 W (39 dBm)
    • Threshold Value – 90 dBm
    • TX and RX Antenna Gain – 0 dBi
    • Protocols – ETSI developed GSM
    • Frequency – 890 to 915 and 935 to 960 MHz
    • Number of Channels – 25 MHz bandwidth split into 124 carrier frequencies spaces about 200 KHz
  • Bluetooth
    • Modulation – GFSK
    • Operation Range – 10 m
    • Transmit Power – 1 mw
    • Threshold Value – -60 dBm
    • TX and RX Antenna Gain – 3 dBi
    • IEEE Protocols – 802.15.1
    • Frequency – 2.402 to 2.481 GHz
    • Number of Channels – 79 channel / 1 MHz
  • Wi-Fi
    • Modulation – CCK, QPSK, M-QAM, BPSK and COFDM
    • Operation Range – 10 to 100 m
    • Transmit Power – 10 mw
    • Threshold Value – -80 dBm
    • TX and RX Antenna Gain – 3 dBi
    • IEEE Protocols – 802.11a, b, g, n
    • Frequency – 2.402 to 2.483 GHz
    • Number of Channels – 14 overlapping channel of 22 MHz

So far, we have debated on VHO simulation using the Ns2 simulator with their environmental settings and simulation steps for heterogeneous networks (Wi-Fi and Bluetooth). Now, we can see one more important simulator as “NCTUns” which is well-suited for vertical handover simulation.

Simulation using NCTUns for Vertical Handover

In fact, NCTUns APIs help to create direct real-time data transmission using a simulation engine. Also, it enables you to execute efficient VHO to make hybrid network communications simple through simulation variables. Further, this aids to analyze the performance and behavior of network components such as a router, protocol stacks, switches, mobile nodes, employed software applications over nodes, etc. 

Moreover, the NCTUns tool comprises different models to support different wired/wireless technologies. For instance: IEEE 802.11b networks, wired networks, GPRS, IEEE 802.11a networks, ad hoc networks, satellite and Wi-Max, etc. 

In addition, it includes several features to make the vertical handover project development as simple as possible. For your better understanding, here we have given you the basic procedure for vertical handover simulation using the NCTUns tool. 

Steps for Vertical handover simulation using NCTUns

  • Assess the handover probability among HetNets by gathering related data
  • The data are gathered based on the metrics of algorithms
    • Bandwidth, Battery usage, Node location, Packet loss, Network delay, etc.
  • Based on gathered data decide on VHO for execution else again collect data
  • Maintain the balanced network by using efficient algorithms
    • For instance: use dwell timer

As mentioned earlier, the efficiency of the wireless heterogeneous network will be improved by the handover. So, it acts as the enhancement technique for all the integrated networks. The main objective of this technique is to attain the maximum value of QoS to fulfill the user’s needs. On managing the following parameters in VHO techniques, we can attain high QoS by achieving seamless node movements over various networks.

Performance Metrics for Vertical Handover Process

  • Throughput
    • Measure the successful rate of any application / service over the time.
  • Average Throughput
    • Measure overall delivered data in specific time period (kb/s)
  • End to End Latency
    • Measure the total time taken by packets to traverse from source to destination
  • Received Packets
    • Measure the successful packets count at destination node
  • Packet Loss Ratio
    • Measure the tolerable rate of packet losses
    • Measure the total number of unsuccessful delivered packets at destination node in specific time period
  • Delay per packet
    •  Measure the tolerable highest delay per packet during the handover step
  • Handover Delay
    • Measure the elapsed time between first and last packets on mobile nodes for network handover
  • Price per MB
    • Price of the service where the user need to pay
  • Power RSS
    •  Measure the power of received signal strength (RSS) on node mobility

For add-on benefit, we have also included the other significant VHO performance metrics in the following.

  • Ping-pong Rate
  • Total Count
    • Handovers
    • Handover Failures
    • Users
  • Handover Duration
  • Success Rate of Handover
  • Handover Failure Probability

On the whole, we are proud to say that we offer all kinds of research and code development services in your interested areas of the vertical handover simulation field. Also, we suggest appropriate research topics, areas, development tools, and technologies based on the current research demand over the present research community. So, make a bond with us to achieve your R&D needs.